曼谷的城市人行道

想象一下一座拥有1500万人口和800万辆汽车的大都市却没有合适的人行道是什么样的?你觉得不可能?哦,不,曼谷就是这样的一座城市。当一位客户要求我们团队为他们的新零售项目设计景观图时,同时也给我们做了简要说明。“我们希望这能成为‘城市焦点’”。然而,考虑到曼谷缺乏优质的人行道,我们认为让其成为“城市步道”更好一些。我们的目标便是设计一样东西,只此一样,那便是为曼谷人民设计出一条优质的公共人行道。
Try imagine a mega city of 15 millions people and 8 millions vehicles without any proper pedestrian pathway, and you may think that it is impossible. Well, Bangkok is kind of like that. When a client asked our team to design the landscape for their new retails project, they also gave us a short brief, 'We want this to be "Talk of the town"'. However, considering Bangkok's lack of quality footpath, we thought it was much better to make it "Walk of the town" instead. Our goal was to design one thing and one thing only, a good public pathway for the people of Bangkok.
曼谷的城市人行道1↑ 客户对我们做出了简短说明:“我们希望这能成为‘城市焦点’”。然而,考虑到曼谷缺乏优质的人行道,我们认为让其成为“城市步道”更好一些。
泰国首都曼谷是整个国家的心脏,是一座十分重要的城市,在重要性这方面让泰国的其他城市都相形见绌。这座城市拥有800多万辆登记车辆,而每天有许多车辆在城市中快速穿梭往来。然而,我们基本上没有任何合适的公共人行道。曼谷拥有超过1500万居民和200多万游客。因此,这座城市的每一寸土地都拥有投资潜力。曼谷人行道当然也不例外。街头小贩们贩卖的东西形形色色,从假冒伪劣产品到你的晚餐,永远占领着不止一半的步行区。更糟糕的是,不计其数的合法的非法的引导标识也堵塞着人行道路的通畅。其中一些则完全无法通行,这使得行人不得不走到街道上,增加了每年的交通事故数量。
2012年,我们的一位客户,中央置业有限公司,想要在中心世界建立Groove购物中心,这是一座两层的零售中心,位于曼谷主城区现有停车场的上方,并位于曼谷最繁忙的两个火车站之间。两个火车站都通向这座城市最大的购物中心,这使得每天穿梭在这两个火车站之间的行人数量十分庞大。目前的结构刚好位于公共人行道旁边。这一设计使得多层次地下停车场中间留有巨大空地,而人行道使得阳光能够照射进来,空气流通状况良好。最底层的地面位于人行道以下5米处,因此需要设置护栏来防止行人坠落。这里生长数年的高大皇家棕榈树的阴影使得道路在夜晚时十分黑暗。这一部分人行道经常停放着过往的摩托车,这意味着经常有摩托车会开到人行道上来。巨大的空地,阴影再加上摩托车,使得这一区域成为犯罪高发区。
起初,我们的工作范围主要是设计新商场内的庭院。客户希望新庭院能够成为“城市焦点”,以期能够带来商业活动并引起民众的热烈反响,并与其竞争对手,即这一区域的其他高端商场,展开竞争。新的购物中心为一座拥有流体外观的两层建筑。这一购物中心建于现存建筑结构之上,其最低的地板比街道水平面高2米。从外观上来看,新购物中心自公共人行道处由停车场的通风管道一分两半,而连接两边的小型人行道作为其入口。若行人从街道上望去,其水平视线处只能看到购物中心的底部。鉴于上述情况,我们认为,我们的主要任务应该集中于购物中心的外围区域,而我们的主要目标应该是改善商场外围公共场所的人行道环境。
由于这项工程的原因,原本的皇家棕榈树被移植别处。因此到时候大量阳光可以洒到地面,对于行人来说更加方面安全。公共人行道两旁将会重新建绿地以达到安全且美观的目的。这一新设计为线型景观斜坡,从地平面至2米高处。从街道看去,通风空间如今完全被隐藏在绿地景观后面,同时绿地景观也起到了防止行人不慎坠落的作用。尽管绿地景观并不与新的购物中心连接,但是它能够成为购物中心底部的一部分,并且可以使得行人在看到之后有种赏心悦目之感。精心安排的灌木和鲜花能够使得这一区域四季如春。与以前的旧景观相比,新景观能够帮助降低地表气温,对于行人来讲更加舒适。同时,新的地下排水系统也可帮助减少地表污水,而地表污水是造成附近街区积水的主要原因,另外,多余的水也可收集起来用于浇灌植物。
除了绿地景观之外,这一区域的其他部分如今全部用作步行区。干净整洁的人造景观为地表行人,包括残疾人,提供了简便的步行环境。摩托车停车处将被移除,使得这一区域再无摩托车,对行人来说也更加安全。到时候街道两旁的行道树将十分整齐,并且能在曼谷的炎热夏日为行人提供阴凉。在过去,行人只能使用火车轨道下方的封闭式人行天桥来穿过这一街区。而新景观使得行人能够行走在地面,接近绿色植物。我们相信这样可以让人们更高的亲近自然,并与其他人交流。
竣工后,这一新景观便能成为曼谷其他人行道设计所效仿的典范。到时候,行人得以安全便捷的通过这一区域。汽车司机在行驶过程中可以瞥一眼绿色,减少交通堵塞所带来的压力。路人可以停下脚步,拍一张绿色照片分享给亲友。每每组织的各种活动可以丰富行人的生活。有了客户的帮助,我们便可以完成曼谷从未发生之事。尽管这并不是什么恢弘的设计,而这一地区也只是曼谷公共人行道一角,但是我们相信,人人参与便能做出巨大的改变。为了使这一设计成为现实,我们也希望周边邻居都能对他们的地产三思一番。若人人都能合作,我们相信我们可以为曼谷的每个人创造出更好的人行道系统。
曼谷的城市人行道2↑ 中心世界Groove购物中心蓝图 Master Plan of Groove at Central World
曼谷的城市人行道3↑ 创意图解 Diagrams of the ideas
曼谷的城市人行道4↑ 新购物中心最低的地板比街道水平面高2米。若行人从街道上望去,水平视线处只能看到购物中心的底部。公共人行道两旁将会重新建绿地以达到安全且美观的目的。
曼谷的城市人行道5↑ 从目前的图像中可以看到有棕榈树和摩托车停车场,会妨碍人行道。通风空间也是开放式设计,只有短护栏作为防护。铁轨和树木使得整个空间全天都被遮蔽。夜间整个人行道都十分黑暗,存在安全隐患。
曼谷的城市人行道6↑ 地形部分建在附加轻结构之上,尽管不与购物中心直接相连,但从外观看来,斜坡绿地成为了建筑物的新绿色基座。
曼谷的城市人行道7↑ 从街道看去,通风空间如今完全被隐藏在绿地景观后面,同时绿地景观也起到了防止行人不慎坠落的作用。同时,可以使得行人在看到之后有种赏心悦目之感。
曼谷的城市人行道8↑ 宽阔的入口,再加上绿色植物,使得2米高的楼梯变得不那么吓人,行人会感觉犹如行走在温室中,两旁不再是巨大的通风空间。
曼谷的城市人行道9↑ 开放式内部庭院中也有绿色植物。自然光的投射不仅节省了电费,也能让年轻的消费者们感受这种环境友好型设计。
曼谷的城市人行道10↑ 水平地面上,庭院中的植物、雕塑、座椅的设计浑然天成、自成一体,给人们提供了休息放松的地方,同时又不用再任何一家店铺花钱。
曼谷的城市人行道11↑ 人行道全景图。从右边开始,依次可以看到令人压抑的人行天桥,上方是火车轨道,永远拥堵的道路,干净整洁的人行道,以及建筑的新绿色基座。
曼谷的城市人行道12↑ 之前这一区域一整天都十分阴暗。夜晚这里十分黑暗,对独自经过的行人来说也十分危险。现在,新的设计使得人行道对行人来说更加安全友好。
曼谷的城市人行道13↑ 新的绿地景观不仅看起来像是建筑物的绿色基座,而且同时也能成为一张绿色壁纸,在交通拥堵时行人和汽车司机都可以看一眼,放松心情。
曼谷的城市人行道14↑ 这张图片很有意思,我们一直避之不及的街头小贩也停下来拍一张新景观的照片。
曼谷的城市人行道15↑ 简单的浇灌喷头让绿地变得更加有趣。我们的目的是为曼谷人民带来他们期待已久的人行道。如果曼谷的每条人行道都能如此翠绿岂不是很好?
Bangkok, the capital of Thailand, is the heart of everything in the country, making it an extreme primate city, dwarfing Thailand's other urban centers in terms of importance. The city has more than 8 millions registered vehicles. Many of those cars are driving crazily around the city everyday. Yet, basically, we do not have any proper public footpath at all. There are more than 15 millions residents and a couple millions more tourists in Bangkok. As a result, every single square inch of the city could be a potential place for setting up businesses. Bangkok's footpaths are no exception. Street vendors, selling everything from counterfeit products to your dinners, permanently occupy more than half of pedestrian areas. To make it worse, an uncountable numbers of both legal and illegal signage help blocking the pedestrian circulation as well. Some are completely blocked, which force pedestrians to walk on streets instead, increasing the number of accidents every year.
In 2012, a client, CPN, wanted to build Groove at Central World, a 2-storey retails space, on top of their existing parking building in the prime area of Bangkok. The site is in between 2 of Bangkok's busiest train stations. Both stations are connected to the city's largest shopping centers, which led to a huge number of pedestrians walking between the 2 stations everyday. The existing structure was located right next to public pathway. It was designed as a multi-leveled underground parking floors with a huge void between itself and the footpath, allowing for sunlight to reach down and for some air for ventilation. The lowest floor was about 5 meters drop from the footpath, which needed guardrails to prevent people from falling down. A number of tall royal palm trees were planted there for years, creating heavy shades which make it a bit too dark to walk in the evening. A good portion of the footpath was used as parking for passing by motorcycles, meaning that some of them were driving on the pedestrian path. Combining the huge void, the shade, and the motorcycles together, the place was just perfect for criminal activities.
Originally, our scope was mainly to design the courtyard inside the new mall. The client wanted their new courtyard to be 'Talk of the town', in terms of commercial activities and Wow effect, in order to compete with their competitors, other High-end malls in the area. The new retails were designed as a 2-storey building with fluid facade design. As it was built on the existing structure, its lowest floor was about 2 meters higher than street level. Linked only by small pathways at its entrances, the new retails appeared to be cut apart from public footpath by the ventilation void of the parking lots. Also, looking back from the street, from their eye level, pedestrians will only see the plinth of the building. Considering the mentioned conditions, we found that our main task should be the area outside the mall, and our main goal should be to improve the walking environment of the public instead.
Because of the construction, existing royal palm trees were removed and replanted somewhere else. The result is that a good amount of sunlight now could reach the ground surface, creating easier and safer walking environment for pedestrians. A green landform was created along the public pathway for both safety and visual proposes. The new design is a linear landscape slope, ranging from ground level to 2 meter high. From street level, ventilation void is now completely hidden by this inclined landscape, which also helps protecting people from falling down. Even though not connected to the new retails, the landscape appears to be the new green plinth of the building as well, providing pedestrians something nice to look on through their journeys. A series of local shrubs and flowers were strategically planted to create blooming garden through out the year. Compared to the original hardscape-only design, this new landscape helps reducing the temperature on the ground level, making it much more comfortable to walk. At the same time, with its new sub-drainage system, the design also helps reducing the surface running water, which partially causes flood on the nearby street. Excessive water is then collected for irrigation of the plantings later on.
Other than the green landscape, the rest of the area is now dedicated for pedestrians only. Flat and clean hardscape was proposed to create a simple walking surface for everyone including the disabled. Motorcycle parking was removed, making the area motorcycle-free and safer for pedestrians to walk by. Existing trees along the street are all kept in order to provide some shades during the hot summer days of Bangkok. In the past, pedestrians used only the skywalk, an elevated pathway below the train tracks, to commute through the neighborhood. The skywalk is basically nothing but a steel structure pathway, a bit dull and depressing atmosphere. The new landscape encourages the pedestrians to come down to the ground and get closer to the garden. This way, we believe they could have a better connection with nature and the people around them.
Since completed, the new landscape has been an example of what Bangkok's other footpaths could become. Pedestrians now walk freely and safely throughout the area. Car drivers now have something green to look on, reducing their stresses from bad traffic conditions in the neighborhood. Passerby stops and takes photos of the garden showing to friends and families. Once in a while, special events are organized to create more activities for pedestrians. With the help of the client, we are able to do something that has never been done before in Bangkok. Even though this is just a simple design gesture and the area is only a small section of Bangkok's public pathway system, but we believe that, in order to change something big, everyone has to participate. By doing this first, we also force our neighbors to start re-thinking of their properties. If everybody collaborates, we believe that we can create a better pedestrian pathway system for all people in Bangkok.

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