简介 Project Statement
Water resilient terrain and plantings are designed to adapt to the monsoon floods; A resilient bridge and paths system are designed to adapt to the dynamic water currents and people flows. The bridge and paths connect the city with nature and connect the past to the future; Resilient spaces are created to fulfill the need for temporary, intensive use by the audience from the opera house, yet are adaptable for daily use by people seeking intimate and shaded spaces. The river currents, the flow of people, and the gravity of objects are all woven together to form a dynamic concord. This is achieved through the meandering vegetated terraces, curvilinear paths, a serpentine bridge, circular bio-swales and planting beds, and curved benches. The project has given the city a new identity and is now acclaimed as its most poetic landscape.
挑战与目标 Challenges and Objectives
In the urban heart of Jinhua, a city with a population of over one million, one last piece of natural riparian wetland of more than 26 hectares (64 acres) remains undeveloped. Located where the Wuyi River and Yiwu River converge to form Jinhua River, this wetland is called Yanweizhou, meaning “the sparrow tail”. Beyond this tail, riparian wetlands have already been eliminated by the construction of an organically shaped opera house.
Before the Yanweizhou Park project was implemented, the three rivers, each of which is over 100 meters wide, divide the densely populated communities in the region. As a result of this inaccessibility, the cultural facilities, including the opera house and the green spaces adjacent to the Yanweizhou, were underutilized. Most of the riparian wetland has been fragmented or destroyed by sand quarries, and is now covered with secondary growth, which was dominated by poplar trees (Populus Canadensis) and Chinese Wingnut (Pterocarya stenoptera) that provide habitat for native birds like egrets.
△ 场地现状及建成前后对比。两侧水泥防洪堤被改造成为梯田式生态护堤；蜿蜒的空中步行桥将被分割的城市连接为一体。Pre-existing conditions (before) and transformations (after). This existing site was a riparian wetland ruined by sand quarries and concrete flood walls. The resilient design strategy dramatically transformed the site by eco-friendly embankment and making the site accessible and connecting the segregated city
The site conditions posed four major challenges to the landscape architect:
1) How can the remaining riparian habitat be preserved while providing amenities to the residents of the dense urban center?
2) What approach to flood control should be used, prevention with a high, concrete retaining wall or cooperation by allowing the park to flood?
3) How can the existing organically shaped building be integrated into the surrounding environment to create a cohesive landscape that provides a unique experience for visitors?
4) Finally and most importantly, how can the separated city districts be connected to the natural riparian landscape to strengthen the community and cultural identity of Jinhua?
△ 建成景观鸟瞰（旱季），梯田防洪堤因为有雨季洪水带来的泥沙沉积，使适应于旱涝的禾本科植被得以茂盛地生长。游人在其中欢快游憩。The aerial view of the park during the dry season, note the lush tall grasses covering the terraces on the embankment. The terraces are enriched by silt deposit during the flood season.
△ 建成景观鸟瞰（雨季），20年一遇的洪水淹没的实景。即便如此，步行桥仍然维护两岸的有效通行。The aerial view of the park during the monsoon season showing a 20-year flood and testifying to the flood resilient design. Note the uninterrupted connection of the city through the bridge.
弹性设计策略 Design Strategy: Resilient Landscape
1. 保护自然与修复生态的适应性设计 Adaptive Tactics to Preserve and Enhance the Remnant Habitats
The first adaptive strategy was to make full use of the existing riparian sand quarries with minimum intervention. In this way, the existing micro-terrain and natural vegetation are preserved, allowing diverse habitats to evolve through time. The biodiversity of the area was adapted and enhanced through the addition of native wetland species. This enrichment, particularly of species that provide food for birds and other wildlife, increases biodiversity.
△ 去掉水泥防洪堤后，使河水得以通过卵石层过滤净化后进入堤内低地，原有的采砂坑变成了可以游泳和戏水的内湖。 The inner pond on the inland is designed to allow water to infiltrate from the river through the gravel layers that make the otherwise dirty river water swimmable (kids playing in the pond).
△ 与洪水相适应的栈道（五年一遇的高度），并与梯田的田埂系统相结合，形成一个空间体验系统，使游客与自然能亲密接触（西南望）。The flood adaptive boardwalk integrated the path system with the terraces. This path affords visitors an intimate naturalistic experience over the riparian vegetation. The elevated boardwalk is just above the five-year flood level (toward the southwest).
△ 高挑的平台和凉亭，地处200年一遇洪水范围之上，让游人近能俯瞰内湖景观，远能眺望城市。This pavilion provides a dramatic viewpoint as it extends above the 200-year flood level. The pavilion features a detailed view of the pond water feature and expansive views of the river, the city and the Bayong Qiao bridge.
2. 与水为友的弹性设计 Water Resilient Terrain and Planting Design
Due to its monsoon climate, Jinhua suffers from annual flooding. For a long time, the strategy to control flooding was to build harder and taller concrete walls to yield cheap land for urban development. These walls along the riverbanks and riparian flood plains severed the intimate relationship between the city, the vegetation, and the water, while ultimately exacerbating the destructive force of the annual floods.
Following this formula, hard high walls have been built, or were planned to be built, to protect the last patch of riparian wetland (Yanweizhou) from the 20-year and 50-year floods. These floodwalls would create dry parkland above the water, but destroy the lush and dynamic wetland ecosystem. Therefore, the landscape architect devised a contrasting solution and convinced the city authority to stop the construction of the concrete floodwall as well as demolish others. Instead, the Yanweizhou Park project “makes friends” with flooding by using a cut-and-fill strategy to balance earthwork and by creating a water-resilient, terraced river embankment that is covered with flood adapted native vegetation. Floodable pedestrian paths and pavilions are integrated with the planting terraces, which will be closed to the public during the short period of flooding. The floods bring fertile silt that is deposited over the terraces and enrich the growing condition for the tall grasses that are native to the riparian habitat. Therefore, no irrigation or fertilization is required at any time of the year. The terraced embankment will also remediate and filtrate the storm water from the pavement above. Although the design and strategies address only a small section compared to the hundreds of kilometers of river embankment, the Yanweizhou Park project showcases a replicable and resilient ecological solution to large-scale flood management.
△ 去掉高高的水泥防洪堤，通过就地平衡土方的“填-挖”策略，建立梯级生态护坡，形成洪水缓冲区，让适应性植被茂盛的生长，平时为游客提供美丽的体验空间（东望）The terraced embankment built by removing the concrete flood wall, and through cut-and-fill strategy that balances the earthwork on site, and has created a flood resilient zone that allows people to enjoy the lush tall grasses adaptive to the seasonal floods (towards the east)
In addition to the terraced river embankment, the inland area is entirely permeable in order to create a water resilient landscape through the extensive use of gravel that is re-used material from the site. The gravel is used for the pedestrian areas; the circular bio-swales are integrated with tree planters, and permeable concrete pavement is used for vehicular access routes and parking lots. The inner pond on the inland is designed to encourage river water to infiltrate through gravel layers. This mechanically and biologically improves the water quality to make the water swimmable.
△ 场地内陆铺装为百分之百的可透水铺装，包括步行区的沙粒铺装，集雨区的生态种植池和车行区的可透水水泥铺装和生态停车场。The surface of the inland area is hundred percent permeable. Generated from on-site materials, gravel is recycled to create pedestrian surfaces. Bio-swales are integrated with tree planters, and permeable concrete pavement is used for automobile routes traffic use and parking lots.
3. 连接城市与自然、历史与未来的弹性步桥 A Resilient Pedestrian Bridge Connects City and Nature, Future and Past
A pedestrian bridge snakes across the two rivers, linking the parks along the riverbanks in both the southern and northern city districts, and connecting the city with Yanweizhou Park within the river. The bridge design was inspired by the local tradition of dragon dancing during the Spring Festival. For this celebration many families bind their wooden benches together to create a long and colorful dragon that winds through the fields and along narrow dirt paths. Musicians sound gongs and beat drums, to the accompaniment of singing, dancing and yelling by villagers, young and old. The Bench Dragon is flexible in length and form as people join or leave the celebration. The dragon bends and twists according to the force of human flow. Like the bench dragon in the annual celebration, the “Bench Dragon Bridge” symbolizes not only a form of celebration practiced in Jinhua area, but is a bond that strengthens a cultural and social identity that is unique to this area . As water-resilient infrastructure, the new bridge is elevated above the 200-year flood level, while the ramps connecting the riparian wetland park can be submerged during the 20-year and larger floods. The bridge also hovers above the preserved patch of riparian wetland and allows visitors an intimate connection to nature within the city. The many ramps to the bridge create flexible and easy access for residents from various locations of the city in adaptation to the flow of people. The landscape architect designed the bridge to reinforce the festive, vernacular tradition, but also as an art form with a bold and colorful combination of bright red and yellow tones that are strengthened by night lighting. All together 700m (2 300 feet) long, the bridge is composed of a steel structure with fiberglass handrails and bamboo paving. The main bridge is five meters wide, with four-meter wide ramps. This bridge is officially named Bayong Bridge (Bridge of Eight Chants), after eight famous poems written in ancient times about landscapes surrounding the site. It is truly a resilient bridge that is adaptive to river currents and the flows of people while binding city and nature, future and past.
Inspired by the vernacular Bench Dragon Dancing, the iconic Bayong Qiao bridge is more than a connecting infrastructure, it attracts thousands of residents and tourists, and over forty thousand people visit the bridges daily. It recovers the vernacular cultural identity of the city.
4. 动感流线编织的弹性体验空间 Resilient Space for Dynamic Experience
The large oval opera house posed significant challenges for the landscape architect. First the building shape tends to repel rather than embrace the user and landscape. Therefore, the first challenge was devising innovative forms that would welcome and embrace the visitors. Secondly, the area near the building needed to accommodate the large opera audience as well as offer intimate spaces and ample shade. Finally, the designers were challenged with the problem of how to integrate the singular flood-proof big object into the floodable, riparian waterfront. The design uses curves as the basic language, including the curvilinear bridge, terraces and planting beds, concentric paving bands of black and white, and meandering paths that define circular and oval planting areas and activity spaces. The spatial organization and design forms establish an extensive paved area for a large audience during the events at the opera house. However, the forms and the inclusion of alcoves create places for the individual, couples and small groups. The dynamic ground of the pavement and planting patterns define circular bio-swales and planting beds, densely planted with native trees and bamboo, bound by long benches made of fiberglass. The circular bio-swales and planting patches resemble raindrop ripples on the river. These curves and circles are the unifying pattern language that integrates the building and the environment into a harmonious whole. The reverse curves simultaneously refer to the shape and scale of the building, while forming a contrasting shape that is human in scale and enclosed for more intimate gatherings. They also reflect the weaving of the dynamic fluxes of currents, people and material objects that together create a lively pleasant and functional space.
△ 圆形生态渗水区与色彩亮丽的板凳相结合，将大型文化演艺建筑的户外场地溶解为亲切的、阴凉的户外体验场所。集水区内种植与水涝相适应的水杉林。Circular spaces dissolve the extensive paved area needed when the opera house is in use and provide intimate shaded spaces for daily use. Long fiberglass benches encircle the bio-swales planted with native water adaptive species such as Chinese Redwood.
The project is a proven success. After the park opened in May 2014, an average of 40,000 visitors used the park and the bridge each day. The local media exclaimed: “the whole city is crazy about one single bridge!” And now, the Yanweizhou Park has created a new identity for the city of Jinhua.
△ 弹性景观总平面：金华燕尾洲公园。The site plan for a resilient landscape：Yanweizhou Park, Jinhua.
△适应于洪水的场地标高设计。两侧的梯田取代原有的水泥防洪堤，场地内部为百分之百的可透水覆盖，包括人行区的砂石、与种植相结合的生态集雨区、车行区的透水水泥铺装和生态停车场。Grading Plan and Section: flood walls are removed and a cut-and-fill strategy is used to create terraces to make the site cooperate with flood. The design is 100% permeable. The surface includes gravel surface for pedestrians, bio-swales for planting, and permeable concrete for automobile use.