Botanica Khao Yai——泰国雨林边缘的度假村

受到附近山脉和泰国最大雨林考艾的启发,本案景观设计旨在建筑和自然间创造联系。设计并未试图制造一片虚假的自然雨林,相反,这个项目的建筑可理解为大树,而景观美化则是大树下的绿色地被。景观成功利用不同光照条件打造出人造可持续森林,鼓励居民去理解并欣赏大自然。
Inspired by the nearby mountain range, Khao Yai, Thailand’s largest rain forest, the landscape is created as the link between the architecture and Nature. Instead of trying to produce a faked natural forest, the architecture is interpreted as big trees while the landscape represents the green areas underneath. Working with different qualities of sunlight, the landscape solution successfully introduces the man-made sustainable forest, which inspires the residents to understand and appreciate what Nature is all about.

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ 建筑之下是景观。受当地雨林的启发,建筑在此扮演了重要角色,确保了光照的可获得,以在整个项目中创造了鲜活可持续的景观系统。Under the architecture, lies the landscape. Inspired by the local rain forest, the architecture plays an important role, verifying Sunlight’s availabilities, to create a living landscape system through out the project.

Botanica Khao Yai度假村位于泰国Khao Yai市的边缘地带,Khao Yai市是泰国最重要的自然雨林保护区。建筑场地是一片废弃的农业用地。场地前面是本地一条马路,后面一座小山正好紧邻边界线。场地被划分为2个主地块,前面的地块靠近马路,是居民区,第二个地块靠近山脉,建立了公园保护区,用于居民和游客的消遣活动。
为了将各建筑单元的要求纳入一个紧凑的区域,“住区区”,即一系列的居住单元被安排在景观平台上。两栋6层楼的建筑被称为A区和B区,位于2块地块间的边缘地区。B区是一个简单的6层楼居住区,而A区稍微复杂。它呈一个V字形布局。A区的一部分是6层楼都有居住单元,后面面对着山。另一部分位于第一个地块中部,从地面向上加高4层,只有顶上2层楼有居住单元,面对着房产前面。加高的单元建在巨大的混凝土柱子上,底下留有大的开放空间。沿着马路建造有12栋2层楼别墅,还有私家花园和泳池。
尽管建筑具有现代化、几何形设计,我们能够在Khao Yai度假村看到相似的基调。因为每栋建筑都有不同的高度,一些居住单元在高柱上被加高,整个项目创造了各种不同类型的光线质量。可利用光照量成为我们在这里再创造森林状景观的主要标准。高柱上漂浮的单元令人想起森林里巨大的树木。每根柱子都与树木的树干同样尺寸,其上的居住单元令人联想起树木的树荫。下层区域与我们在树下看到的情形相似,尽管缺乏光照,但自然生物还是在这种严峻的条件下存活下来,欣欣向荣。荫蔽区域模仿自然界情形,创造了绿色地形。森林中找到的本地蕨类植物,被用来遮盖住地表,被称为蕨类山丘。这一区域主要的行人往来之路被称为“通路”。它在整个景观中上下左右蜿蜒曲折,使得居民能够选择自然景观中的各条通道,去往各自的住处。通路不仅仅是人们行走的要道,也是一片休闲区域,居民们可以锻炼或休闲散步,并体验与自然的直接互动。通道还通往公共区域,比如大厅、俱乐部、电梯厅和走廊,所有的设计都在露天中,没有使用空调,而不是用树木创造一片凉爽荫蔽的环境。自然光线也被结合进整个项目。设计选用了当地的材质,以和谐建筑与风景景观。这些材质在当地很容易获取,比如在基底建设时,很容易在建筑场地找到山石。
在第二个地块,设计有“公园”作为所有居民和游客的休闲区。恰好在边界线附近的邻近的山,设计了3层地下排水系统,以阻止洪水和滑坡。过量的雨水被收集存储用于干旱季节灌溉用途。许多景观美化项目被引进这块地产。用餐馆隐在竹林之后,其又是公园的边界。山底下,设计了一座绿山和倒影池,展现了人工和自然景观之间的一些差异。然而,有了山的倒影,人工和自然景观间又结合地天衣无缝。方案设计中还有两个泳池。第一个泳池位于体育馆和休息厅顶部。它倒映的水面能完全遮挡住底下巨大的钢架构。第二个泳池设计在公园中央。其水面也倒映出周围环境,既有山也有建筑,结合在一起形成整个景观的一部分。在设计居民区景观时,鼓励健康的生活是我们的主要目标之一。一条慢跑小道设计在公园右侧。为了实现跑道长度的最大化,还设计了一座上升的慢跑桥以增加跑步者的路线选择。慢跑桥的形状同时回应了周围区域多山的天际线。
总的来说,设计团队在现代环境下设计,同时又完整保持了热带环境氛围和感觉的精髓。合理布局、周详考虑,以确保居民们能够看到Khao Yai度假村的美丽全貌。我们相信当代设计并不需要与自然相对立。设计概念的意图是创造一片和谐的森林,以减少人造建筑结构的唐突,使建筑与周围环境融为一体。
泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ Botanica Khao Yai度假村的总平面图 Master Plan of Botanica Khao Yai

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ “森林”示意图 Diagrams of ‘the Forest’

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑“通道”在这个景观区内蜿蜒曲折,能够使居民选择选择前往住所的不同路线。同时,通道还是一块休闲区,居民们可以在此锻炼、休闲散步,并与自然直接接触。 ‘The Path’ serpentines through out the landscape, enabling residents to choose their own routes amidst natural surroundings, and, at the same time, acts as a recreational area, where residents could exercise or take a leisure walk and experience direct contact with Nature.

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ 初开始,我们原以为这里什么都不能生存。然而,在这个案例中,升高的居住单元底下的区域,是本地蕨类植物繁荣生长的完美之地。First, we thought nothing would survive here. However, in this case, the area under the elevated residential units is just perfect for these local ferns to thrive in their own right.

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ 过渡区…从建筑到风景 Transition space...From Architecture to Landscape

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ 考虑到地块的紧缩,我们感觉建筑有点太拥挤了,因此设计了泳池遮住底下的健身房和洗手间。产生的很有趣的结果就是整栋建筑完全消失不见了。We felt that the architecture was a bit too crowded, considering the compact plot it was built on, so this pool was used to camouflage the gym and toilets underneath. The result is quite interesting that the whole building disappears totally.

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ “公园”示意图 Diagrams of ‘the Park’

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ 用餐区和室外平台部分隐匿在绿色清新的竹林后面。Dinning pavilion and its outdoor terraces are partially hidden by this refreshing green mass of the bamboo forest.

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ 在山的底部,户外用餐平台和绿山与倒影池融为一体,展现了人工和自然景观之间的一些差异。然而,水面上的倒影使得自然和人工景观结合地天衣无缝。At the base of the mountain, Outdoor Dining Terrace and Green hill are integrated into a reflecting pond, demonstrating some contrast between Manmade and Natural landscape. Yet, with its reflection, the water unites all together seamlessly.

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ 阶梯与绿色景观完美融合,中间留有小间隔,以确保小生物有自己的通道,杜绝被居民踩到的危险。Steps are carefully integrated into the green landscape, leaving little gaps in between to make sure that small living creatures will have their own paths, without danger of being stepped on by our residents.

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ 在休闲泳池中与自然一起游泳。升高的看台使居民对住宅区全景能够一览无余。Swimming with Nature in the Leisure Pool. Elevated Bar Pavilion is offered for residents to get an unobstructed panoramic view of the residences.

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ 设计居民区景观时,我们的主要目标之一是鼓励健康的生活方式。Encouraging the good health is one of our main objectives designing the residential landscape. A Jogging Track is also proposed for all residents.

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ 这一建筑场地位于泰国最大的山脉附近,因此我们没有考虑采用平坦的跑道,而是设计了往上升高的慢跑桥,增加了跑步者的路线选择。The site is located near Thailand's biggest mountains, so we just did not think we had to do a flat track. Here comes the elevated jogging bridge, which allow our runners to multiply their routing options.

泰国雨林边缘的度假村
↑ 景观与自然融为一体。When the landscape and Nature become one.

Botanica Khao Yai is located on the edge of Khao Yai, the most important national reserve forested region of Thailand. The site was an abandoned agricultural land. On the front, it faces a local road, and, on the back, a small mountain just right next to the boundary line. Separated into 2 main plots, the front plot, next to the road, is the residential area, while the second plot, next to the mountain, is reserved as a public park for recreational activities of the residents and visitors.
In order to fit all unit requirements into a compact area, ‘The Residences’, a series of residential blocks, were arranged on the landscape platform. Two 6-storey buildings, called Block A and Block B, are located along the edge between 2 land plots. Block B is a simple 6-storey residential block, while Block A is a bit more complicated. It has a V Shape layout. One part of the block has units for all 6 floors, facing the mountain behind. The other part is located in the middle of the first plot, elevated 4 floors from the ground with units only on the top 2 floors, facing the front of the property. The elevated units are built on gigantic concrete columns, leaving space underneath as big opening void. Along the road, 12 2-storey villas are created, with private gardens and pools.
Despite the architecture’s modern and geometrical design, we saw a similar atmosphere found in Khao Yai. Because each building has different height, some units elevated on tall columns, a different variety of sunlight qualities are created through out the project. Sunlight availabilities became the main criteria that we used to re-create a forest-like landscape here. The floating units on tall columns reminded us of gigantic trees in the forest. Each column is about the same size as the trunks of those trees, and the units above reminded us of the canopies. The area underneath is very similar to conditions we found under the trees, which, despite of its lack of sunlight, Nature has found its way to thrive under this hard condition in order to survive. Imitating this natural condition, Topographic green landforms were created in the shaded area. Local Ferns, found in the forest, were used to cover up the landform, called the Fern Hills.
The main pedestrian circulation of the area is called ‘The Path’. Raised a bit above the Fern Hills, it serpentines left and right, up and down through out the landscape, enabling residents to choose their own routes amidst natural surroundings to their accommodations. More than being just a movement artery, the Path is also a recreational area, where residents could exercise or take a leisure walk and experience direct contact with Nature. The Path is also linked to the public areas such as lobby, clubhouse, lift hall and corridors, all designed as open-air without using air condition, instead creating a cool and shady environment with large trees. Natural lighting is also integrated into the entire project. Local materials were selected to harmonize the architecture and the landscape. These materials can easily be acquired locally such as mountain stones, found at the site during basement construction.
On the second land plot, ‘The Park’ was created as the recreational attraction for all residents and visitors. With the neighboring mountain, right next to the boundary, 3 layers of sub-drainage systems were carefully prepared to prevent flood and land slide. Excessive rainwater is harvested and collected for irrigational uses during the dry season. A variety of landscape programs have been introduced to the property. The Dining Pavilion, hidden by bamboo forest, was designed to frame the boundary of the Park. At the base of the mountain, a green hill was integrated into a reflecting pond, demonstrating some contrast between Manmade and Natural landscape. Yet, with the reflection of the mountain, it unites both together seamlessly. 2 swimming pools were also proposed. The first pool was located on top of a gym and a lounge. Its reflective water camouflages the massive structure underneath, making it totally disappeared. The second pool was created in the middle of the Park. Its water also reflects the surroundings, both the mountain and the architecture, combining all together as part of the overall landscape. Encouraging the good health is one of our main objectives designing the residential landscape. A Jogging Track is also proposed on the right side of the Park. Trying to achieve the maximum length of the running track, an elevated jogging bridge is introduced as a tool to multiply the routing options for the runners. Its shape also echoes the mountainous skyline of the surrounding areas.
Overall the design team has developed designs within a contemporary context, but still keeping intact the essence of a tropical feeling and atmosphere. This is achieved through a careful consideration of appropriate layout to ensure that the residents are able to see the beautiful panoramic-scope of Khao Yai. We believe that contemporary design does not have to be in opposition to nature. The intention for the concept is to create the friendly Forest in order to reduce the harshness of man-made structural form, thus, integrating the building and surrounding nature as one.
Project Title: Botanica Khao Yai
Company Name : T.R.O.P: terrains+open space
Lead Designer : Pok Kobkongsanti
Client/Owner : The Scenical Development Company Limited
Photography credit: Pirak Anurakyawachon, Aranyarat Prathomrat
Additional Project Credits:
Project Resources
Project Team : Peerasit Sangwanloy
Chanchai Wimonsirichotikun
Architect : Vin Varavarn Architects Co., Ltd.
Interior Designer : Define Studio Co., Ltd.
Mada Design Factory Co., Ltd.
Structural Engineer : Qbic Engineering and Architect Co., Ltd.
M&E Engineer : Thanavit Design & Engineering Co., Ltd.
Water Thai Tech Co., Ltd.
Contractor : Grand Frame Co., Ltd.
Landscape Contractor : Invention Green Co., Ltd.
Interior Contractor : S-PRO Co., Ltd
Central Home Co., Ltd.
Lighting Designer : Truelight Co., Ltd.
Supplier
Sculpture : Cobra Foam Holding Co., Ltd.
Concrete Waterproofing: : TPI Polene Co., Ltd.
Wood Decking : Siamcitycement Co., Ltd.
Wood Coating : Beger Co., Ltd.

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